Problem statement in the system of scientific beliefs. Yu.Murashkovsky

Problem statement in the system of scientific beliefs

I. Problem and superproblem.


The problem as such is of no value proper. The problem is stated for the sake of obtaining the result, that is a new system with a new function. And the function of a system, as it is known, is pre-conditioned by the supersystem. Hence, the significance of the solution first of all depends upon the fact why we need this solution, in what superproblem we try to obtain it and in what supersystem we intend to use it.


Example 1:

In 1933 Vavilov's postgraduate P.A.Cherenkov, to the proposal of his scientific director, studied the mechanism of luminescence of uranile salts solutions under the action of gamma-rays and discovered that in addition to conventional luminescence there is also a feeble blue  fluorescence of the solvents proper, i.e., the solution radiates light even when nothing is dissolved in it.


Earlier this phenomenon was observed by Marie and Pierre Curie, but they considered the unknown light to be a feeble luminescence of some admixtures in a "pure" solution. Vavilov, who knew all properties of luminescence very well, understood that this is something else. For example, new fluorescence did not become less intensive both as a result of heating and as a result of adding the strongest "extinguishers" to the solution (potassium iodine, caustic silver, etc.). Vavilov proposed that blue fluorescence is caused not directly by gamma-rays, but by quickly moving electrons generated by these rays (1. 254).


В случае Кюри обнаруженное явление трактовалось в надзадаче «объяснить новое явление, не меняя старых объяснений». Ничего нового и не появилось. В случае же Черенкова и Вавилова надзадача была «новому явлению – новое объяснение». И в такой надзадаче то же самое наблюдение привело к открытию нового явления и к созданию новой частной теории.


In case with curie the identified phenomenon was treated in the superproblem as "to explain the new phenomenon without changing old explanations". Nothing new appeared.  In case with Cherenkov and Vavilov the superproblem was "new explanation of a new phenomenon". And in this superproblem the same observation led to the discovery of a new phenomenon and to the cration of a new particular theory.


Example 12:

It is known that crystalline minerals could be characterized by adsorption capacity, i.e., attract and hold the molecules of other substances on their surface. British crystallographer G.Burnall paid attention to the fact that clay materials are characterized by a higher adsorption capacity. Besides, they interact with different types of compounds, which are characterized by adsorption, in a different way. It was explained by the correspondence of structures of clay materials to the structures of molecules of substances, which they adsorb.


In order to synthesize proteins and nuclein acids the cells generate molecules, which are rich in energy, which with the aid of enzymes supply each stage of monomer attachment with energy. Enzymes also eliminate excessive molecules, for example, water, which hinders dehydratation. Polypeptides and polynucleotides are synthesized in laboratories in non-aqueous solvent at high concentration of monomers and with high-energy reagents. On the primitive Earth water was the only solvent, needed monomers were fairly scanty, the reagents were simple, enzymes were missing at all. It is difficult to imagine polymer formation under such conditions. The English chemist A.G.Kearns-Smith supposed that the life started with crystals, which form minerals. Possessing the capacity of reproducing their equals, non-organic crystals sort of demonstrate embryonic genetic properties. They also reveal reduced capacity for mutations, which manifests itself in the fact that defects may occur in a regular arrangement of atoms in crystal.  Such minerals, which are characterized by layer structure, like clays, are susceptible to copying the defects of one layer in the structure of another one, which could be looked upon as a kind of genetic memory.   . It was noted that the defects in the structure of crystallic facets often take part in the chemical activity, including cathalysis. Kearns-Smith supposed that such a simple organic compound as formaldehyde, the synthesis of which could be cathalyzed by a mineral, which is characterized by such a defect, had the capacity to accelerate the process of reproducing crystal with defect and thereby to enhance the accuracy of copying, as a result of what the number of such crystals as compared to crystals of other type, grew dramatically. It was the start of evolution of protein-nuclein genetic system, which further on separated from its mineral ancestor. (2.64-66)


In the first case the discovered phenomenon is related to the field of crystallography. In this supersystem the explanation of enhanced adsorption capacity of clay minerals was no more than another small fact in science.


In the second case the discovered phenomenon is related to the theory of chemical origin of life. And it led to the creation of a new particular theory. The stage of pre-biological evolution, which was not clear heretofore, got its explanation, the missing intermediary link between the geological and biological development was theoretically found. A new principle appeared, which could be used for creating a number of new theories.


II. Pyramid of changes


It is visible from this example and from other examples, that the solutions of one and the same problem will be different depending upon the fact to what extent the source system is modified. To evaluate possible modifications, we can use a five-level scale, which is already customary for TRIZ, taking into account the difference of scientific beliefs from engineering systems.


Level 5. Generation of a new paradigm, new trend in scientific thinking (particular prototype is missing):


Example 3:

The celestial sphere, on which the heavenly bodies are fastened. It must have been generated in Ancient Babylon.


Example 4:

The idea that the atom is not an indivisible particle, but has a structure of its own. The Thomson model "white bread with raisins" and Rutherford planetary model.


Example 5:

The notion of "field" as an invisible entity, which translates the action remotely.


Level 4. Creation of improved new model, which eliminates the main gaps in the new paradigm (source paradigm acting as a prototype):


Example 6:

Several celestial spheres for each planet and for stars. The idea was probably generated in Ancient Greece.


Example 7:

The notion of stationary orbits for electrons, on which they don't emit and don't absorb energy. N.Bohr.


Example 8:

Structure of field – force lines. M.Faraday.


Level 3. Hypothesis or a particular theory, coordinating the paradigm with a particular observation or experiment result (the prototype is the previous explanation of these results)


Example 9:

The astronomer Hypparchus, who lived in Ancient Greece introduced additional spheres (epicycles) for each planet. It offered a possibility to explain the reverse motion of planets.


Example 10:

Additional orbits (orbitals) for different groups of electrons – it offered a possibility to explain the phenomenon of valence.


Example 11:

Explanation of proliferation of field in the form of transverse oscillations – it offered a possibility to explain the phenomenon of light polarization. Au. Frenel.


Level 2. Refining explanations (the prototype is the previous explanation, which is a little bit more accurate):


Example 12:

Introducing the epicycles of the second and third order it offered a possibility to perform a small refinement of the trajectories of the planets' movement. The data concerning it are quoted by Ptolemeus.


Example 13:

Arrangement of electrons in orbitals  in pairs – it offered a possibility to coordinate the ideas of chemists and physicists concerning the motion of electrons.


Example 14:

Refinement of distribution of oscillation frequencies of electromagnetic field throughout the entire spectrum it made the calculations of energy values of electromagnetic oscillation easier.


Level 1. Explanation of individual minor phenomena, which are not arranged into a common system (ad hoc – "in situ", "linguistic explanations"), insignificant refinement of numeric parameters:


Example 15:

Ptolemeus specified the distance to the planets, which made the prediction of planets motion a little bit more accurate.


Example 16:

Orbitals and electron pairs got their symbols, which made the calculations easier.


Example 17:

Parts of spectrum of electromagnetic radiation got their names.


III. Standard problems


The problems appearing during the development of systems for scientific beliefs, are standard and they can be classified. 


1.     Initial study of the object or phenomenon.


Example 18:

(For 18 years the English doctor William Gilbert studied magnets and wrote a book called "On magnet, magnetic bodies and on big magnet - Earth. New physiology, proved by a miultitude of arguments and experiments " - 1600.)

He discovered that if the magnet is heated above a certain temperature level, its magnetic features disappear, later on this temperature (588°С) was called Curie point...

Gilbert discovered that when a piece of iron is brought close to one pole of the magnet, another magnet starts to attract stronger. This idea was patented only 250 years after the death of Gilbert.

Gilbert discovered that the objects made of soft iron, which remain without motion for long time, acquire magnetism in the direction of North - South. The process of magnetization accelerates, if the iron piece is hammered upon.

Gilbert discovered a screening property of iron. He was the first to say that the magnet with a "helmet" or with a "nose", i.e., a magnet, embedded into a fitting made of soft iron, attracts objects much stronger.  Gilbert expressed a genial idea: the action of a magnet proliferates like light. <...>

Very important in the theory of Gilbert is the fact that he was probably the first to distinguish the electric phenomena from magnetic ones, by revealing different nature of these groups of phenomena. Gilbert managed to differentiate magnetic and electric phenomena, which since then were explored separately. (3. 28-29)


2.     Constructing the model.


Example 19:

It was about this time, when Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) started to participate in these studies. <...> He explicitly showed that the enigmatic "prime cause", which soared in the air and caused growth of micro-organisms in a sterile broth, consists in these very microorganisms, which are carried by dust particles. (2. 42-43)


Example 20:

As we know, Newton discovered that the colors of the rays are their "initial and inherent" properties, which are different for different rays. He supposed that the "color property" is embodied in the size of light particles: the smallest of them yield violet color (the least intensive and the darkest), the biggest yield the red color... (4. 41-42)



3.     Developing the methodology.


Example 21:

We obtained a mixture of mononucleotides and olygonucleotides. Now the mixture has to be separated into components. <...>

One of them is chromatography on paper. If the analyzed mixture is applied over a "start" and then to slowly wash the paper with a mixture of different solvents with some additives (an  example of such mixture is the solution of isopropil alcohol, hydrogen chloride and water), molecules of different compounds will get stuck in different sections of paper. When the chromatographic process is over, chemical compounds, which are "stuck" in different sections of paper, are removed, for example, using water or other solvents. Having collected individual mononucleotides or oligonucleotides, the researcher can identify their chemical and physico-chemical properties and find out what particular compound he is dealing with. And, of course, one should not forget the most important thing. The order of nucleotides getting free from the molecule of DNA and RNA indicates, in which sequence they were bonded there. (5.10)


4.     Finding a minimum model.


Example 22:

Crystallography as science presumably dates back to 18th century. It was about this time that the French abbot Haioullit, watching the process of crushing big crystals of calcite, discovered that each fragment exactly echoes the shape of the source big crystal.  Haioullit set forth a supposition that such crushing essentially cannot be endless; there should be the tiniest possible crystal, which should preserve all properties of the crystal! <…>

(Such elementary cell of the crystal was discovered in the 20th century as a result of discovery of X-ray diffraction. E.S.Fyodorov calculated that there can be 230 regularities of crystal "arrangement".) (6. 127-131)


5.     Verification and refinement of the model.


Example 23:

...Young referred to a most convincing experiment with three screens, one of the variants of "experimentum crucis", proving the influence of interference. First homogeneous light was directed at the first screen, in which a large hole had been made. It was a source of light, which was falling on two other screens. There were two holes in the middle screen. They were installed at a small spacing one from another. Finally the cones of light passing through these holes, got to the third screen. In the place, where they overlapped, alternating dark and light interference stripes were visible.  If the researcher covered one of the holes, the stripes disappeared, as it could be expected. (4. 75-76)


Example 24:

The system of A.L.Takhtajan(1966) is most exhaustively developed and most detailed as well as generally recognized. In this system the author took into account all achievements in the field of biological science, which is of importance for phylogenetic relations with flower plants. Important corrections were introduced into the system of Takhtajan, changing the earlier ideas of genetic relationships with taxons of angiosperm plants. In its latest variant dated 1980 the system includes 11 sub-classes, all dicotyledonous plants are distributed between 7 subclasses, while monocotyledonous - in 4 subclasses. (7.21)


6.     Finding the measurable parameters of the model.


Example 25:

Clausius introduced the notion of enthropy into thermodynamics. This physical value characterizes the thermal condition of the body or a system of bodies and shows, to what extent different types of energy within the system were transformed into thermal energy , which cannot independently get converted into other kinds of energy.  Enthropy can be looked upon as a certain function, which categorically defines the condition of a body or a body system at a given moment of time. And since the conversion of all types of energy into a thermal one enhances the chaotic movement of molecules, enthropy could be also looked upon as a measure for chaotic character of molecules motion. (1. 162)


Example 26:

In 1925 the Leningrad physicists (group of Yu.B.Khariton), studying the combustion of phosphorus vapors in oxygen, discovered an unexpected phenomenon, which was not understandable from the standpoint of classical physics.  When the pressure of oxygen dropped to 0.1 mm Hg column, the reaction stopped completely. Phosphorus did not react with oxygen, when the pressure was below this critical mark! Phosphorus vapors, mixed with oxygen, did not enter into a reaction until they reached a certain threshold, after which the burst took place. <…>

The most detailed examination proved the existence of critical pressure; then the riddles came one after another. It appeared that the value of the lowest limit (Р1) depends upon dilution with inert gas, upon the pressure of phosphorus vapors  and… upon the size of vessel! The last dependency appeared to be absolutely strict– the value of Р1 changed proportionally to the square of diameter of reaction vessel. (6. 67-71)


7.     Extension of the model beyond the initial area of applicability.


Example 27:

Lavoisier had enough genius and courage to make the next step, which was still more important. He fundamentally revise a thousand-year old dogma on four elements, which form all bodies in the world, the dogma, which dates back to the times of Aristotheles. The universal acceptance of this theory could be proved already by the fact that the obligations of Deans of British universities included the control over the absence of criticism of Aristotheles in the dissertations, which were submitted for defense. (6. 23)


Example 28:

A unique position among the mathematical works of Aristotheles is occupied by "Calculation of grains of sand in space, equal to the volume of a sphere of immovable stars" or "Psammyth". The task was set – to show that "…there are numbers, which exceed the number of grains of sand, which can be squeezed not only into space, which is equal to the volume of Earth, but also into the volume of entire Universe… "). The Greeks used letters to signify figures. It was inconvenient and restricted the ideas of large numbers. Archimedes developed a new system of figures notation.

Having described the system of numbering, Archimedes solves the stated problem. According to his calculations in the volume, which is occupied by the entire visible Universe there is a thousand myriad "eighth numbers" of grains of sand, which in a modern notation corresponds to the number of 1063. (1. 20-21)


Inside each of these superproblems there is its own subdivision. For example, "construction of models" includes the construction of general models, construction of individual models, elimination of contradictions between different models or between models and observations, etc.  Getting deeper into these issues is not included into the goal of the present report.


IV. Dictatorship of superproblems


Let us take a simple source situation – initial study of the object.


Example 29:

So called herbals appear - books, in which most important useful plants are described and depicted. The names of plants most probably correspond to a list of their properties and are given to the plants arbitrarily by each botanist. An acute necessity appears to classify this large variety of plants. The first scientific system of plants was proposed by the Italian doctor A.Cesalpino (1519 – 1603). In his great work "On plants" (1583) he subdivided all vegetable kingdom into two sections and 15 classes. The scientist was interested in the issues of external and internal structure of plants, he studied the emergence of seedings; he described more than 1000 plants. (7.17)                                                                                                                  


One and the same problem. In the first case - with herbals – the superproblem of simple data gathering was placed. The solutions of the problem were no higher than Level 1. In the second case a very high superproblem was stated initially - creation of qualitatively new model. And the result was the first comprehensive scientific classification of plants.


Example 30:

For thousands of years people learned to solve different mathematical problems. Ancient Egyptians already knew how to find the roots in equations of the first and second grade. The formulae for solving equations of third and fourth grade were generated in the 16th century. Finally in 1824 N.H.Abel showed, that the equation of higher than fourth grade, written in the general form, i.e., with letter coefficients, cannot be solved in radicals – its roots cannot be calculated using four arithmetic operations… and root extraction. But if the equation of the type anxn+an-1xn-1+…+a1x+a0=0  at nі5 cannot be solved in radicals, the roots of many particular equations (with numeric coefficients) could be found for equations, the degree of which could be as high as needed… In his works Galois showed how to identify, if the given particular equation can be solved in radicals or not.

The main notion of Galois theory is the notion of groups. A group is a multitude of objects, which have certain common properties. For example, real numbers constitute a group. Their common feature consists in the fact that the product of two real numbers is also a real number. Motions on the plane also constitute a group. The feature of the group consists in the fact that a sum of any two motions also yields a motion. It is possible to analyze a group of operations performed on certain "objects", etc. To identify the group it is necessary to form the rules, which should be adhered to, so that this multitude of objects could be called a group. Such groups are called group axioms. (1. 157)


Once again, when the superproblem of solving particular types of equations was stated, the solutions were no higher than level 3. Galois immediately stated the problem of a higher level – to identify the principles of studying ALL equations of this type.  And the result was the solution of level 5, a new principle, which was applicable not only in mathematics.


Even in the simplest case of verifying the results, which were obtained earlier,  another statement of superproblem radically changes the result.


Example 31:

Henry Cavendish, repeating the experiments on hydrogen combustion, which were already described, discovered that water was obtained as a result. Lavoisier repeated the experiments of Cavendish and proved that water was not an element, but a compound of oxygen with hydrogen. (6. 22)


This example requires clarification. During this period the commonly accepted model was the one of ancient Greece, according to which all substances consist of four elements – earth, water, air and fire. Such substances as oxygen and hydrogen never developed into individual elements, but were considered to be varieties of air (hydrogen was called "combustible air" and oxygen -– "pressure-stimulating air" or "deflogistized air"). Cavendish made a discovery of level 3 – he demionstrated that the combustion of the element "air" yields another element -  "water". Lavoisier from the very beginning stated a more significant superproblem – to show that the combustion was not a release of "flogiston", but integration with oxygen.  It means that the real elements are not the ones accepted in ancient Greece, but rather particular ones - oxygen, hydrogen and others. That was a new idea of nature - level 5.


Thus, it is obvious that the level of solution does not depend upon the character or statement of the problem itself, but is a function of a super-problem.


V. Procedures of transforming the beliefs


But the statement of the problem itself does not lead to solutions of high levels.


Example 32:

At the beginning of the 19th century it became entirely clear that the theory of self-generation of life as it is. Many scientists set the task of developing a new model of life origin. One of those who took up this task was William Thomson (later known as Lord Kelvin). This is what he wrote in the President's address to British association of science development, 1871:

"Rather accurate experiments, which were performed by the present time demonstrated that any form of life is preceded by life. Dead matter cannot be converted into live matter without having experienced the action of live matter. It seems to me to be as undoubted scientific truth as the universal law of gravitation. I am ready to accept the assertion that the life can be generated by life only and by nothing else but life as a scientific postulate, which is true always and everywhere. (Further on Thomson proposes the hypothesis of meteorite method of life transportation.) (2. 44-47)


The idea is far from being new. It was about that time already that the data existed casting doubts upon this theory. In 1924 A.I. Oparin set forth the theory of chemical origin of life. Why did not Thompson do it? He had enough information to bring forward a hypothesis like this.


Actually Oparin made only one step forward as compared to Thompson. He supposed that there are intermediary stages between chemical evolution and biological one. Is this step methodologically unique?


Example 33:

The oldest human, the remains of whom were found, was primeval man — pithecanthropus (literally - a "monkey man"). The bones of pithecanthropus were first found as a result of intense search, which lasted from 1891 to 1894 and were conducted by the Dutch doctor  E.Dubois near Trinille, Java. Leaving for South Asia, Dubois set the goal to find a species, which embodied a transition from ape to human, since the existence of such species followed from the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin. The discoveries of Dubois were more than equal to his expectations and hopes. Cranial roof and thigh found by him immediately demonstrated the value of Trinille findings, since one of the most important links in the chain of human development was found. (8)


Example 34:

In 1862 A.Hayter  set forth a supposition that a well-known decomposition of chloroform under the influence of alkali, accompanied by formation of carbon oxide (ΙІ) and salt of the formic acid, develops through the intermediate stage at which utterly active "bi-chlorine carbon" CCl2. <…> Only by 1950 it became clear that Hayter (almost one hundred years before) was absolutely right concerning the mechanism  of chloroform decomposition. The application of new scientific methods enabled to demonstrate that under the action of strong bases chloroform first looses a proton and then the newly formed anion CCl3-, converts into :CCl2 loosing anion Cl-,

OH- + HCCL3 → H2O + CCl3-,

CCl3- → Cl- + :CCl2,

which, in its turn, looses a carbon oxide, reacting with water:

:CCl2 + H2O → 2HCl + CO.

A formiate-ion is generated in the presence of excess of hydroxile ions:

:CCl2 + OH-→ HCOO- + HCl.  (6. 86-87)


As we see the introduction of an intermediary stage is rather a standard procedure for transformation of scientific beliefs.


Such standard procedures were discovered in profusion. Let me quote some of them.


1. Use of direct analogies. Substituting the previous analogy with the one characterized by higher potential.


Example 35:


Of course, the diffraction itself does not necessarily lead to the formation of waves. Later on Newton was prone to explain it by the fact that particles of light flying near a certain body, are attracted by this body, so that the light beam is bent in this place. However, for Grimaldi the bending of the light was rather a proof of wave nature of light. The fact that a stick, which he placed inside the light cone, yielded a broader shadow than he expected, taking into account the rectilinear proliferation of light beams, caused in his imagination the vision of waves, diverging from a stone thrown into the water. (4. 25-26)


2. Structuring. Conferring a certain structure to the object being studied. Changing ther structure of the object. Enhancement of structurization degree. Conferring a structure to the supersystem of the object being studied. For the processes – transition from a linear structure to the branched structure. Separation of properties within the structure.


Example 36:

Having concentrated on the central problem stated by Freud: "What is "ME"?", G.Lacan came to a conclusion that the subject can come to self-identification only in contact with other speaking humans. Using the laws of linguistics, Lacan reminds the readers that reality is not shapeless, but is organized through elements, which confer the meaning to it. ("designates"). Their role is performed by the language, it organizes such perception of reality with a human due to which personality is formed. (9. 42) (Structurization of supersystem).


Example 37:

In 1925 the Leningrad physicists (group of Yu.B.Khariton), studying the combustion of phosphorus vapors in oxygen, discovered an unexpected phenomenon, which was not understandable from the standpoint of classical physics.  When the pressure of oxygen dropped to 0.1 mm Hg column, the reaction stopped completely. Phosphorus did not react with oxygen, when the pressure was below this critical mark! Phosphorus vapors, mixed with oxygen, did not enter into a reaction until they reached a certain threshold, after which the burst took place. <…>

The supposition that this is simply a chain reaction did not clarify anything and was even contradictory to experience, since all chain reactions developed at a constant rate  (without acceleration to say nothing of dramatic acceleration). And here came an effulgent flash of intuition!

N.N.Semyonov set forth a hypothesis according to which not only simpler, non-branched chains are possible, but also branched chains, in which the radical leading the chain, yields not one new radical as a result of elementary act, but two or three radicals. (6. 67-71) (Transition to branched structure of the process)


3. Identification of elementary system. Identification of elementary parameter. Identification of elementary act in the process. Identification of parameter separating elementary systems. Identification of structure of elementary systems combination. Identification of elementary supersystem.


Example 38:

Results of most recent studies led the Swedish scientist M.Nielsson to a conclusion that the cult of the majority of Greek gods dates back to Mycenaean period. Further on, the mythological plots became more complicated due to addition of new traits prompted by the conditions of life itself and were included into longer narrations, like adventure stories. The narrations about the heroic deeds of individual characters are integrated into epics about enterprises involving large number of people, like the "golden fleece" campaign of the Argonauts or hunting a Caledonian wild boar. Complicated mythological narrations like the myth of the Trojan war, about the campaign of Argos tribe chiefs against Thebes, etc. were most probably created in the same way. Large-scale excavations in Crete and on sites, wherer supposedly Troy, Mecenae, Tirinthus, Pylos and other cities  were situated, demonstrated that the epics about these cities are based on historical data. And the inscriptions of this epoch enable to suppose that some of the characters of these epics, like Pryamus, Hector, Paris and maybe also Etheoclus and others were historical figures. (10.31-32) (Identification of elementary systems)


Example 39:

Let us take Buffont... Negating the reality of species in some of his works, he did not only admit their reality in other works, but also, being ahead of the level of science of his time by more than a hundred years, supposed to use the criterion of reproductive isolation for distinguishing the species. (11.9-10) (Identification of parameter, separating elementary systems)


4. Transition to supersystem. Studying a group of objects instead of single objects. Assuming the existence of a multitude of objects, which were considered single.  Studying the interaction and trimming of the objects inside the multitude. Transition from one-factor system to a multifactor one. Analysis of studied object from the standpoint of a supersystem. Transition to studying a supersystem instead of studying the object.


Example 40:

Synthesizing the data of Darwinism, evolutionary morphology and embryology with the data of population genetics, Schmahlhausen and Simpson (1944), in addition to moving or leading form of selection, singled out the stabilizing or centripetal form of selection. (11.28) (Transition to a multi-factor system)


Example 41:

A small amount of silicon is always found within the composition of DNA. Though this amount is small, only portions of percent, but still its presence in Dna is considered to be proved.

Except enumerated nitrogen bases (co-called ordinary, prosaic ones) exotic bases are encountered both in DNK and RNK. They are called minor ones. First they were considered to be an occasional phenomenon. But then it became clear that the presence of minor bases is not such a rare thing. For example, minor pyridine bases were identified, as well as  methylcytosine, pseudouridine, etc. Minor purine bases were also found, like 1-methylguanin, 1-methyladenin... The exotic phenomenon appeared to be quite a regular one. Only with the so called transport RNA the number of minor bases attains 50. (5.7) (Assumption of existence of a multitude of objects, which had been considered solitary)


Example 42:

Cultural anthropology transgresses the boundaries of social psychology. The latter considers an individual as a member of society and small groups. The former is starting to study "cultures". <…> Cultural anthropology considers an individual to be a part of the whole. (9. 37) (Considering a studied object from the viewpoint of the supersystem)


As of today, 11 such procedures are singled out. It is planned to add other procedures to this list. However, a simple increase in the number of such procedures is a dead-end track. It is much more important to answer the question: is the use of the procedure a guarantee for obtainment of high-level solutions?


Example 43:

Tycho Brahe proposed his geo-heliocentric  system of the Universe, which was an unsuccessful combination of theories set forth by Ptolemeus and Copernicus. The scientist thought that the Sun orbits around the immobile Earth, while all other planets orbit around the Sun. Of course, the hypothesis of Tycho Brahe is currently of historical interest only. (1. 41)


Tycho Brahe applied the procedure, which we now call transition to super-system. Nevertheless, he did not obtain a model with a higher level of novelty.


VI. Time inside Time


As we saw already, standard procedures for transforming scientific beliefs consist of a number of "subprocedures". However, it is not simply a list of options. These "subprocedures" form a strictly definite temporal succession. Let us analyze it based on the example of a procedure "separation in time".


At certain stages of evolution of beliefs, a standard situation appears, when the classification branches, looses its coherence and entirety. In this situation the solution is the introduction of time parameter into the model. At the early stages this is a simple assumption of a possibility of changes.


Example 44:

Working with plants and conducting experiments on crossing, he (Carl Linnaeus - Yu. M.)  came to an important conclusion that under the influence of external conditions as well as a result of crossing, the species, especially cultural ones, can be modified, yielding numerous varieties. (7.19)


This is not such a simple step as it could seem at a glance. The classification paradigm holds the mentality fast.


After that new beliefs pass through elementary primary structuring in time. T could be a transition from continuous process to a discrete one, and just the opposite, or introduction of reverse or cyclic processes, etc.


Example 45:

Further development of Laar ideas found in the works of the Soviet chemist V.V.Razumovsky (theory of electron tautomerism). The main issue of this theory is assuming of actual (in time) existence of limit structures, converting one into another at an exceptionally high rate.  It is obvious that quick migration of electrons from one atom to another is meant (with Laar that was the way hydrogen behaved). (6. 54)


After that intermediary stages appear in simple one-stage time sequences.


Example 46:

Let us, for example, consider symmetric trimethylbenzene (mesitylene). When mesitylene is radiated with UV-light, it gets converted into pseudocumene – one of the methyl groups  transgresses to the adjacent atom of the ring:



How does this reaction develop? <…> In the course of the reaction the benzene ring undergoes a deep restructuring – it gets destroyed and is reconstructed then. It could be proved by using a radioactive mark (radioactive atoms of carbon are marked with a star).It appears that in this reaction methyl group performs a transition together with "its" carbon atom of the ring!  


To make such a transition possible, the ring should be broken for some time. It is assumed that the reaction develops through the intermediate formation of hydrocarbons, in which there is no benzene ring at all, for example, through the prismane, which is isomeric to source hydrocarbon:


(6. 86-87)

After that the beliefs are finally formed, which in ontogenesis could be called one-stage processes, while in philogenesis – periodizations.


Example 47:

The importance of this viewpoint consists in the fact that it, being a thought-provoking viewpoint, led the Arabian philosopher of the Middle Ages Ibn-rushda (Averroes) to a genial thought. According to his opinion, a natural magnet deformed the space, which was adjacent to it, according to its shape. The areas of the ambience, which were nearest to this magnet, in their turn deformed the areas, which were adjacent to them and this process developed until  the "spices" reached iron. (3. 27)


Example 48:

In the 1860-ies John Lubbock subdivided the Stone Age (according to the methods of stone processing) into paleolith and neolith. At the end of the 19th century the Frenchman Gabriel de Mortilier  further subdivided these stages into substages: Paleolith – Cheuil, Acheuil, Moustier, Solutrй, Madelaine; Mezolith – Asyl and Tardenoise. Later on Henri Breuille added one more stage – Orignac. (12.69)


The next stage was conversion of discrete periodizations into continuous and logical evolution models.

Example 49:

Principle of actualism in geology (which Hutton and Lamarc approached) formulated by him (By Ch. Lyell - Yu.M.) was an integral concept of the Earth evolution, i.e., first  fundamentally substantiated concept of non-biological evolution. Lyell showed that such currently applicable (actual) factors as mountain formation, volcanoes activity, icing, fluxes, rain, wind, tides could fully explain and actually explain exactly those changes on the Earth surface, which we witness now as well as the changes, which took part in the geological past.  (11.12)


At this stage the evolution models most often present the object as regularly developing. After that comes the turn of irregularly developing models. 


Example 50:

Further observations proved the initial conclusions and also showed - now in keeping with the expectations — that the remotest superstars deviate downwards (in the direction of more intense brightness) from the linear dependence of brightness from the photometric distance. It means that even during the earlier periods of history the Earth was expanding with a deceleration — because during these periods it was more dense and the gravitation yet braked the expansion. As it follows from the data on the 7most remote superstars (with  z > 1,25) published in 2004 and about 180 superstars, which are closer to us, the victory of antigravitation over gravitation took place over 6 billion years ago; transition from deceleration to acceleration of Universe expansion is observed at z  = 0.46 ± 0.13  (13. 217-218).


Thus, the application of typical procedures for transforming scientific beliefs leads to the obtainment of solutions of high level only in such case, if we correctly identify, at what stage of evolution the analyzed model is, and if we apply the procedure of transition to the next stage to it.


The mistakes are not restricted to wrong identification of model evolution. Evena correctly selected procedure could be applied incorrectly. However, the analysis of mistakes made during the application of the procedures is a separate topic.


VII. Conclusions


Concerning the problems, which are encountered during the evolution of systems of scientific beliefs, it is possible to assert:


1. The notion of "correct problem statement" is relative and completely depends upon the super-problem.

2. There are typical superproblems, within the frames of which the problems are stated.

3. The quality of solving problems, associated with the development of scientific beliefs, could be identified by the value of change introduced into source problem. The value of modification could be measured using a five-level scale.

4. The quality of problem solving is preconditioned by two parameters – selection of superproblem and application of standard procedure for transforming beliefs.

5. Standard procedures for transforming beliefs are time sequences of elementary transformations. The quality of solution is preconditioned by correct selection of the model evolution stage and by the application of a transformation, which is appropriate in terms of time.


VIII. Reference


1. V.P.Lishevsky.TRUTH-HUNTERS. "Nauka publishers", M., 1980.

2. Horowitz N. Search for life in the solar system. M., Mir publishers. 1988.

3. V.P.Kartsev. MAGNET DURING THREE MILLENNIUMS. 4th edition, revised and augmented. M., Energoatomizdat, 1988.

4. Oleg Moroz. Is TRUTH BEAUTIFUL? "Znanie publishers", Moscow, 1989.

5. Ye. Romantsev. Logical miracles. M., "Molodaya gvardija publishers". 1987.

6. О.Yu. Okhlobystin. LIFE AND DEATH OF CHEMICAL IDEAS. "Nauka publishers". M., 1989.


8. History of the world. Volume 1.

9. M.-A. Robert. F.Tillement. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP PSYCHOLOGY. M., "Progreses publishers". 1988.

10. S.I.Radzig. History of literature of Ancient Greece. M., Vysshaja shkola publishers. 1977.


12. Alekseev V.P., Pershits A.I. History of primeval society. "History". – M.: Vysshsja shkola., 1990. – 351 p.: ill.

13. Yefremov Yu.N. Star islands: star galaxies and Universes of galaxies. Fryazino. "XX Century", 2005. 272 p.