INTERNATIONAL TRUCK AND ENGINE CORPORATION
2911 MEYER ROAD FORT WAYNE, IN 46803 T260-749-0421
4023 Willow Bay Dr.
New Haven In. 46774
15 May 2012
Jim Bradley Ph.D., PE, Master Black Belt& TRIZ Specialist
Site Leader of Black Belts
Submission Form for Master of TRIZ
To the Certification Committee
Jim Bradley Ph.D. PE
To: The Certification Board for Master of TRIZ.
Introduction: My first 25 years of my Engineering was centered on Fluid Mechanics. This was focused upon Numerical Modeling of hydraulic systems. Most of this was accomplished in the Consulting Engineering Environment, and teaching Fluid Mechanics; Hydraulics, and Numerical Methods at several Universities.
In May of 1989 I went to work for the Eagle Pitcher Plastic Division my assignments were focused on solving complex problems. During my Employment at Eagle Pitcher I took a 3 day workshop using TRIZ taught by Victor Fey; this course and others since then have changed the way I think forever. As I drove home from the course I wondered why I had never heard of this Science before.
My job assignments at both Eagle Pitcher Plastic Division, and Navistar Truck, and Engine Company were both considered very confidential, therefore I was required to sign agreements of confidentially.
The work I present below is based upon memory; when Eagle Pitcher was sold I knew that my days were numbered. On a Thursday afternoon I was asked to gather my personal belongings and was escorted out of the Facility. With Navistar Truck and Engine Company on my last day my very close friends from our IP Department showed up. They needed to know where all of my files were so they could secure them together with my computer. Again the problems I list below are from memory.
The TRIZ tools I applied at Eagle Pitcher Plastic were:
· Removal of Technical System Contradictions
· Removal of Physical Contradictions
· SU-Field Modeling
· Applying 76 Standard Solutions
· And Hybridization
The material that was most helpful to me was the workshop material of the Course taught by Victor Fey, Master of TRIZ
“The Tools of Classical TRIZ.” Written by Boris Zlotin, and Alla Zusman, both Masters of TRIZ
It should also be noted that I made very many phone calls to ask questions from all of these folks.
At Navistar Truck, and Engine Company the TRIZ tools were expanded to include:
· Functional System Analysis
· Function Oriented Searches
· S-Curve Analysis
· Tech Optimizer
· Subversion Analysis (AFD 1, and AFD 2)
· IWB DE this was used and continues to be used after my retirement while still helping Navistar IP Department solve problems
· System Analysis of the Problem Situation G. Ivanov
· Also 2 Algorithms that were developed by A. Kislov
· All of the tools contained in TRIZ ++
All of the people who helped me with this effort are as follows, I am very sorry if I have forgotten some one:
- Dr. Simon Litvin
- Dr. Sergei Ikovenko
- V.V. Mitrafanov
- Isak Bukhman
- Boris Zlotin
- Alla Zusman
- Victor Fey
- A. Liubomirski
- V. Petrov
Special thanks must also be extended to Dr. Mark Barkan; I first met him when he was working with Ideation. He was the person who introduced AFD 1, and AFD 2 to our 6 Sigma program at Navistar. Several of our 6 Sigma Candidates applied this methodology to solve their problems after they identified their problems using 6 Sigma. Dr Barkan also gave to me several books in Russian concerning TRIZ.
As a member of Senior Staff I also used this to make our Design Engineers become more involved with their projects. When they made presentations at the Design Review; I asked the question, “Your Design is Excellent; how can you make it fail?”
This caused of Design Teams to look deeper into the problems they were trying to solve and could happen.
TRIZ Applications were used at:
- Eagle Pitcher Plastic Division: May of 1989 to October 1997
- Navistar Truck, and Engine Company August 1998 to January 2007
- They Continued to be used today to help others at no-charge
- TRIZ Specialist Certificate Number: 002. Dated June 6, 2001
- Certificate of TRIZ Specialist Certificate Number 70.March 2005 MATRIZ
List of Patents:
Note: All of these patents were created TRIZ. Non were applied for prior to this Training.
- US Patent # 6,718,574 Bunk Leveling Support Assembly
- US Patent# 6,907,371 Fuel Level Detection, and Calibration System
- US Patent # 6,973,947 B2 Tractor with Integrated Floor Fuel Tank
Note: This particular patent solved additional problems. Ideation applied AFD 1, and AFD 2 to stop fuel tanks from rotating due to vibrations caused because weight reduction to improve fuel consumption efficiency. Other problems that were not submitted included a duel distribution duel return fuel system that was causing many problems to our customers. I was asked to look into it. Trimming and hybridization were applied to solve this problem. The new tank would reside under the cab; thus eliminating one of the fuel tanks, and the duel distribution system. Another component was introduced inside the fuel tank: porous material; this component reduced/eliminated sloshing that was causing excessive vibrations that caused Driver discomfort. I am able to disclose this additional information as the patent was not renewed.
- US Patent # 7,017,531 Vehicle Intercool System
- US Patent # 7,516,806 B2 System, and Method for Heat Removal from Confined Space in a Motor Vehicle using Natural Aspiration and Curie Temperatures
- US Patent # 7,533,635 B2 Method and Device for a Proactive Cooling System for a Motor Vehicle
- US Patent # 7,559,391 B2 Engine Compartment Temperature Sensitive Louvers
- US Patent # 7,559,575 B1 School Bus Crossing Gate and System for Activation
- US Patent # 7,640,967 B2 Thermo-Siphon Heat Reduction System for a Motor Vehicle Engine Compartment
- US Patent # 7,721,536 B2 Particulate Filter Having an Expandable Capture Structure for Particulate Removal
- US Patent # 7,789,182 B2 Air Power Energy Transformation to Electrical Energy for Hybrid Vehicle Applications
- US Patent # 7,793,495 B2Engine Gas Temperature Reduction
- US Patent # 8,118,005 Auxiliary Power Units for Vehicles
- US Patent # 8,123,281 Proactive Aerodynamic Truck/ Trailer Shroud
Other Intellectual Property Activities where TRIZ was utilized:
1. Because of Confidentially agreements I am unable to go into great detail, however I was directly involved to 2 Intellectual Property infringement suits. The TRIZ Methods that I utilized were Function Oriented Searches; S-Curve Analysis, and TESE. In both instances Navistar won the infringement suits. TRIZ Applications and 6 Sigma applications were of Great Importance in accomplishing these tasks.
2. In 2005 I was asked to investigate “Emerging Technologies’ relevant to toxic emission reduction. In May 2004 I was sent to Saint Petersburg, Russia where I was taught TRIZ ++ that was developed by Simon Litvin, and his Team. Using a Patent search engine: Aureka, and applying TRIZ ++ A Plasma Transformer Technology was uncovered. The device had diesel fuel injected through it, and then to the catalytic device where the exhaust gas was injected. Tests confirmed that this device would make exhaust gas compliant with 2010 emission standards. Due to prior Business Commitments this technology was not adopted by Navistar Truck, and Engine Company.
Note: All Patent and Intellectual Property were performed when I was employed by Navistar Truck, and Engine Company. I wish that I had been able to share all of this information with you.
Note: Although I have been retired form Navistar Truck, and Engine Company since January 31, 2007, I continue to help them by solving complex problems or inventing. I do this at no charge; it is to help my Friends Succeed. By me receiving compensation for my work may have other employees loose their jobs; I am unable to do this.
Note: Upon my retirement all of my files including TRIZ analysis were given to the IP Department. I am trying to recall the TRIZ applications I applied using my memory.
A list of Disclosure Forms was sent to the Committee separately; these forms are part of the Navistar Truck, and Engine Patent Process. Because of the Confidential Nature of these projects I am not able to disclose information concerning most of these projects. One thing does need to be known; All of my analysis, and Solutions were obtained using TRIZ. However because of Prior Art, two of these projects may be discussed:
- Reduction of toxic emissions by improving the combustion of Diesel Engines. After the research was completed on plasma transformers the question became how could this technology be applied more effectively? Again using the procedures of TRIZ ++; Functional Block Diagrams; ARIZ- 95- VF, and Trimming, the secondary tools, namely of the catalytic converter were eliminated. The new question then became: How are toxic exhaust gas emissions going to be reduced or eliminated? Applying the TESE Algorithm developed by GEN 3 Partners it became apparent if the combustion efficiency were improved the quality of emissions would be improved. This was accomplished by improving the geometry of the combustion chamber; the diesel fuel would be injected into a plasma transformer, and then through an improved injection system into the combustion chamber. Once the fuel was ignited a Corona discharge was activated thereby destroying the sulfur particulates. The exhaust gas was then conveyed to the exhaust gas pipe. This disclosure form and all of the TRIZ analysis was submitted to the IP Department for approval. It turned out that MIT has submitted a patent form on this idea.
- Next Generation Bus Roof: One problem that keeps popping up is how to cool, and heat the interior of a Bus. One of my Colleagues and me has a patent solution for this topic, however we were asked to look into it again. Applying TRIZ++ again as well as removing Physical Contradictions comes up with the following idea that was submitted to the IP Department for consideration. We developed a roof that would change color due to the Temperature requirements. When the interior of the Bus was cool the bus roof turned black to draw heat in from the sun. This heat was then distributed through out the Interior using small fans. When the temperature of the Interior of the Bus was warm, the Bus Roof turned black thereby drawing the heat to the roof that was then drawn into the atmosphere. Again MIT had a patent form submitted.
Note: The Following Solutions to Inventive Problems were not patentable; however they did save the Company Money.
3. The Cab installation issue: This problem had been on going for about 3 months at one of our assembly plants. One of our engine suppliers had changed a pipe configuration on their motor, as a result of this the cab could not be lowered, and connected to the truck chassis. The solution suggested was to re-design the Cab; this would have taken about 6 months and cost the company $ 5000,000. On Friday afternoon the Vice-Presid ent whom I worked for came into my office with Process Maps; Geometrical Data, and 6 Sigma analyses, and he asked me to look into the problem. Over the weekend and on Monday when I returned to work I studied the problem looking at First the Administrative Conflict; The Technical System Contradiction, and the Physical Contradiction. Using their process map, and a Functional System Map I was able to apply the Principle “Do it in Advance.” I took my results to my Vice-President who talked with the Plant Manager, who tried my solution: It worked; this saved the Company $500,000.
4.Eagle Pitcher Plastic Division. Spoiler Structural Problem: In the 1990’s Ford Motor Company re-launched the Mustang together with the Cobra. The later vehicle had a spoiler that contained a light. During the manufacturing of the spoiler by Eagle Pitcher it was noticed that the opening where the light was to be installed cracked. A Team worked on this project worked on the project for about 3 months; it was determined that a re-design of the light area may be necessary. Although not part of the Team I was asked by the Division President to see if a new design was needed. As I walked through the manufacturing area, I did notice that we were painting these spoilers. The spoiler was connected to a paint hook, paint was applied, and the spoiler was conveyed to a bake oven to dry the paint. After looking at the temperature data, and applying the first part of ARIZ, I determined the correct problem to be solved. The spoiler was constructed of thermo set plastic; the paint hook was constructed of steel, the spoiler was locked into place by bolts. Two different thermo coefficients of expansion. The paint hook was causing the spoiler light area to crack. A Physical Contradiction was encountered: The spoiler must be connected to the paint hook, and the spoiler may not be connected to the paint hook. The solution was to not connect the spoiler by means of a sliding bracket. This worked, the problem was solved.
5. G.T. Spoiler seam pop issue: This was another problem that occurred with the spoilers supplied to Ford during the Mustang Launch. Briefly, the spoiler was joined together using an adhesive, and was supposed to appear seamless. However, after the bonding, and during the painting operation pops appeared along the seam. A Team was formed to solve this problem. The solution was to apply a sealer around the bond seam, let it cure for 8 hours, and then paint the part. This solution worked. The problem then became additional storage was required; I was then asked to look into the problem. Again applying TRIZ I looked at the problem area; the adhesive part interface. The adhesive when applied contained no air; however air was present at the bond adhesive interface; due to the expansion of air during the paint curing process this is how the pops occurred. Using an index of physical effects it was found that if an open flame were applied to the plastic prior to applying the adhesive, the surface energy was reduced, ad the adhesive entered into the plastic together with the entrapped air. The pops were eliminated. This solution produced another problem; additional time was required to apply flame to the part prior to the adhesive being applied by a robot. Using mono-systems to convoluted bi-systems, the acetylene torch was mounted on the extension arm of the robot, and the problem was solved.
6.This particular problem reminded me of the Luna 14 TRIZ Example. In our paint process at Eagle Pitcher paint pops were occurring. This problem is usually caused by chemicals entering into the system. The power wash system and the water quality associated together with the cleaning material were investigated with no apparent shortcomings. This happened for about two weeks; I was then asked to look into the problem. I was informed that it was indeed the power wash system that was casing the problem, and further and a more detailed investigation was required. Upon investigation of the paint application area I noticed that due to the heat the Painters were wearing sleeveless tops. A thought occurred to me; if it has been proven that the water quality had nothing to do with the problem; then the problem had to be occurring at the part painter interface. The chemical composition of the under arm deodorant. Chemical analysis confirmed assessment. Separation between the whole, and its parts was applied:
- A non-sleeveless top must be worn during painting operations.
- Or a Non-toxic under arm deodorant must be used.
7. Eagle Pitcher was developing plans for both fire, and tornado safety plans. When the warning devices sounded, in many instances employees would enter into the wrong safety areas. In one particular instance during a scheduled tornado test, many of the employees entered into the parking lot instead of the tornado shelter. I was once again asked to look into the problem. The key became the actual alarm system. Because of the similar nature of the alarm sound system employees became confused as to what the alarm really meant. I reviewed the 40 Principles, and determined that if electric signs were installed at key locations the employees would be informed if a fire or a tornado was present thereby going into the following safety areas.
- Because of new products being launched additional employees were needed to build these parts. Most of these employees came from the Hispanic Community. To help these folks accomplished their tasks the Spanish Language was taught at Eagle Pitcher. This took up time, and as a result of this the quality of the parts became an issue. To accommodate the current crises work instructions were posted at each site both in Spanish, and English. However, this took up too much space, and caused additional problems. I was asked to look into the problem. The Physical Contradiction became the instructions had to be large because they were Bi-Lingual, and they had to be small to fit into the required space. I applied one of the separation tools, and instead of using written language pictures were used to show to work on the parts. Employees also begin to communicate by using the pictures, and the parts to ask each other questions pertaining to manufacturing, and installing the parts. Harmonization of Rhythms was the Law that was also applied.
- Storm water detention basin issue. One of the problems encountered at the detention basin at our facility was the outfall structure. The structure was funnel shaped, and set at the correct elevation for the storm water to enter to be discharged into the open channel down stream. The problem became because of cone shaped structure on top, it became a playground for both employees, and neighborhood children to use as a target to throw things at. This not only damaged the structure but in some instances plugged the drain and the storm water could not be discharged. Several attempts were made to isolate the area so employees and children could not be near the area but with no positive results. I was asked to investigate the problem, and a Physical Contradiction became apparent. The outfall structure must be present to discharge the storm water, and the outfall structure must be absent so it cannot be harmed. The solution was obtained by applying Separation Principles. The outfall structure became an inverted El placed underwater; the discharge elevation was controlled by a structure whose pipe was set at the correct discharge elevation. The system worked, and the outfall structure was no longer in danger.
- This problem was a Navistar Problem. Bus Crossing Arms were becoming an issue. When the School Bus stopped to discharge children a crossing arm was activated at the front of the bus so that children had to move away from the front of the bus so that the Driver could see them. The problem was that the arm was fixed on one end, the other end was held in place by a magnet; as a result of this structural failures occurred. I was asked to look into this problem. Because of the design, and the loading imposed on the cantilever system a quick analysis supported the reason for the failure. Again the Physical contradiction was examined. The arm had to be present to protect the children, and the arm had to be absent so as not to fail. I applied Principle #7 Nesting. We relocated the crossing arm under the door side. When the door was open the arm extended thereby moving the children away from the front of the bus so that the driver could see them. When the door closed the crossing arm returned to its nested position.
- One other problem should also be mentioned involving Navistar. Some of our trucks were unable to start in extremely cold temperatures. Several things were looked at, and I was asked to look at the problem. I used an Advanced Technique developed by Dr. Litvin: Function Oriented Searches. What was discovered was Capacitor Starters; this was a technology developed during the “Great Patriotic War.” By the Russians and used in the T-34 Tank.
Many more problems were solved by using TRIZ at both Navistar, and Eagle Pitcher Plastic Division, and there was interest in implementing this Science; however the Plastic Division was sold to Cambridge Industries. Senior Staff was let go and 3 years later Cambridge Industries entered into bankruptcy.
TRIZ, and Navistar’s Truck Technology, and Design Center
I was hired by Navistar Truck and Engine Company on 31 August 1998 to become part of their 6 Sigma Program. For my Certification Project TRIZ was applied to obtain the correct solution applying the nine screen approach. This project saved the Company $ 150,000. I was then asked to complete Master Black Certification. This project was focused upon paint, and paint process optimization. This project saved the Company 7.5 Million Dollars; again TRIZ was applied. I then became the Site Leader of 6 Sigma at TDTC.
By this time the Vice-President I was working with so the value of TRIZ, and hired Ideation to supply training material; solve problems, and teach TRIZ. This was short lived because Dave Patrishkoff moved on. The next Vice-President I worked for also saw the value of TRIZ, and asked me to include it in 6 Sigma Training. This was accomplished, however due to new leadership 6 Sigma also disappeared. Phil Christman , my New-Vice President also saw the need for TRIZ, and Creativity, and we formed the Innovation Zone, TRIZ was still taught but not to the extent that was needed. Victor Fey was brought in for meetings, and presentations, and also GEN3 Partners but due to budget constraints was never implemented. I was however encouraged to receive my Certification, and to even receive advanced training in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The remainder of my assignments were centered around the IP Department, and solving complex problems.
6 Sigma and TRIZ: While under going training, and applying I discovered something that is very important. 6 Sigma does a wonderful job of identifying problem areas; statistical differences, in systems, and in some instances a statistical solution that must then be solved by Subject Matter Experts; this induces Psychological Inertia. When confronted with problems that were usually conveyed in the Administrative Form; however applying 6 Sigma the problem areas come into light, and TRIZ can be applied for solving the correct problem with the correct solution. During my time at Navistar this was the approach that I took.
Innovation Zone: This organization was developed to inculcate curiosity, and Innovation. Many of the members were trained in some aspects of TRIZ. We also helped people with patent disclosure forms, and solving the correct problem. With Phil Christman being promoted, and sent to Chicago the Innovation Zone died as well. Even though this occurred I continued to help employees apply TRIZ until my retirement on 31 January 2007.
Note: For TRIZ to become successful at Navistar, the key Law Applied was Harmonization of Rhythms. There was many groups and Teams each with their own agenda; but when they saw improvements to projects they became interested.
Future TRIZ work:
Although I have been retired I have been called upon to solve problems, and apply for patents. This work is performed at no charge so they will not lay off Employees at Navistar. I also continue to introduce TRIZ to industries in this area; when asked about training people I recommend qualified TRIZ Trainers who do this for a living; again I do not charge for these activities. I will continue to do this work.
Goals and Projects:
- Formation of the G.S. Altshuller Hall of Fame
- Formation of the G.S. Altshuller Library
- I would like to write a book for MATRIZ about how all of you introduced TRIZ in the Former Soviet Union. This book would be donated to MATRIZ at no cost to sell, the money collected to be used for MATRIZ Activities
- Currently working to introducing TRIZ to both a Grade School, and a High School
- Continue to Promote TRIZ; it is very important and very useful.
- In many of my presentations about TRIZ a comment was always made: “You know Jim, this was invented in Russia; it was not invented here in the US.”
This same comment happened again recently, and I responded as follows: “You are quite correct; TRIZ was not invented here, but… It can certainly be applied to invent here!” Perhaps as we move forward in introducing TRIZ this statement may provide some insight.
Jim Bradley Ph.D. PE